Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector in agribusiness, and develop to be more intensive with high density, high technology input and dependence to the artificial feed. The more intensive aquaculture cause the higher risk in diseases outbreak. The understanding in immunology of fish is the basic knowledge to develop environmental friendly fish diseases countermeasure methods. This course deliver the basic and advance knowledge on the importance of the defenses system of fish, specific and non-specific immune defense, mucosal defense systems, cellular and humoral defense system and antibodies. Students also learn the basic principles to increase the defense system in fish such as vaccination and immunostimulation. The effect of environmental factor is also crucial to prevent the diseases and to manage the favorable environmental condition for fish. Student also learn the basic methods in fish immunology research and application of fish immunology in aquaculture. This course is one of important courses to develop sustainable aquaculture technology for seafood safety and security.

To explore post harvest of aquatic bioresources’ biochemical and physical charracteristics, either as seafood or non food.  To recommend the optimal utilization of fish raw material, based on its qualities and the biochemical content, either for direct consuming or as part of fish diversification process which carried out on the zero waste principle.

Tracing seafood from harvest into costumer hands is essential for sustainability efforts of Indonesian fisheries industry. Therefore, this course will discuss detection and design methods of practical testing tools for determining the quality of raw materials for aquatic products including the theory of quality deterioration, compounds that can be used as molecular targets or complement in the design of practical testing instruments waters based on physical and chemical changes, as well as examples of the developed methods or practical testing instruments (rapid test) for better quality of aquatic products.

Along with scientific development, Biomolecular approach has been developing to answer problem of live. Biomolecular of Aquatic Product is designed to develop aquatic product research for sustainability seafood and its safety. This course involves DNA / RNA isolation techniques, PCR, SDS and 2D-PAGE, Western blot, as well as gen expression.


Seafood is a group of highly perishable food resources which proper handling and distribution needed to get good quality of seafood raw material and their products. This course provides students with practical seafood system handling and transportation to get prime quality and price of seafood either for the benefit of producers (included fishers and seafood industries) or consumers. Discussion topics are taken from several cases at the sources of fish resources (east part of Indonesian waters) to cities in Java Island or abroad.






THP512 SeaFood Enzymes                                                                                  2(2-3)

Semester: Genap


Course Objective: The enzymes that exist in the body of the fish have a role in causing the deterioration of the quality of the fish so that the fish become unfit for consumption. Enzymes work under certain conditions. Therefore we need a good understanding of the characteristics of these enzymes. Appropriate handling actions are needed to maintain the freshness of the fish so that it is expected to minimize losses. Enzymes in the body of fish can be isolated, purified, and applied to various industries making fish-based products. Product diversification is one of the solutions to maintain the sustainability of fish food availability when fish are limited. The use of waste as a source of enzymes is also a solution to reduce environmental pollution.


Learning Outcomes:


On completion of this course, students will be able to:

- able to determine the freshness of the fish

- understand the characteristics of enzymes that play a role in the deterioration of the quality of fish

- can handle fish properly

- able to choose the right enzyme isolation and purification techniques

- able to determine the enzyme that will be used to be applied to various industries processing fish-based products


Pre-requisite: None


Course Outline


I.        Introduction

(1)  Scope of seafood enzymes

(2) The role of enzymes in the deterioration of the quality of fish

(3) Application of enzymes in various fish-based industries

(4) Conversion of fishery waste into value-added products


II. Fish quality deterioration

(1) Stages of decline in the quality of fish

(2) Mechanism of reactions that occur during deterioration in the quality of fish

(3) Characteristics of enzymes associated with fish quality reduction process

(4) Fresh fish handling techniques

(5) Efforts that need to be done to inhibit the deterioration of the quality of fish




III. Isolation, purification, characteristics of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors isolated from fish

(1) Macro characteristics and microorganisms as sources of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors

(2) Enzyme isolation techniques and enzyme inhibitors from various aquatic commodities

(3) Enzyme purification techniques and enzyme inhibitors from various aquatic commodities

(4) Karakeristik enzymes and enzyme inhibitors that are isolated from various aquatic commodities


IV. The types of enzymes that exist in aquatic commodities and their role in the manufacture of products and health

(1) Digestive enzymes

(2) The dominant enzyme is in the muscle

(3) The dominant enzyme is on the skin


V. Function of enzymes in determining food and non-food quality

(1) Function of enzymes in protein-based products

(2) Function of enzymes in lipid-based products

(3) Function of enzymes in carbohydrate-based products


VI. Recovery of enzymes from waste produced by fisheries as a source of enzymes

(1) Recovery of enzymes from liquid waste from fishery products

(2) Recovery of enzymes from solid waste from fishery products


Laboratory Session:

1.    Sensory tes for fish

2.    Isolation, purification, and characterization of enzyme from fish


Field visits:

1.      Seafood processing factory

2.      Fish markets - fish landing site, traditional village and supermarket


Learning Resources:


Textbooks: No designated textbook, but lecture notes will be provided.


Reference Books:

1.        Haard NF and Simpson BK.  2000. Seafood Enzymes: Utilization and Influence on Postharvest Seafood Quality.  CRC Press. P: 696.

2.        Huss HH. 1995. Quality and Quality Changes in Fresh Fish. FAO. Rome.

3.        Nurhayati T, Nurjanah, Nugraha R. 2017. Fisiologi, Formasi dan Degradasi Metabolit Hasil Perairan. IPB Press.


Journal and Magazines:

  1. Internataional Food Research Journal
  2. Food Sciences
  3. Food Chemistry
  4. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
  5. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
  6. Hayati Journal
  7. Biosc. Biotech.   Biochem
  8. Etc.


Teaching and Learning Methods: Lectures, field visits, presentations, and laboratory sesion (description attached)


Time Distribution and Study Load:

Lecture hours = 7x100 minutes

Field visits       = 4x100 minutes

Presentation   = 100 minutes

Self-studies     =  2x100 minutes


Evaluation Scheme

  Mid-term exam                   = 30%

  Final exam                            = 30%

  Report and Presentation = 20%

  Laboratory session            = 20%.


Assessment standards follow the rules set by IPB university.

A ≥ 80

80 < AB ≤ 75

75 < B ≤ 70

70 < BC ≤ 65

65 < C ≤ 55


Instructor: Prof. Dr. Tati Nurhayati













School Recommendation: _____________________                                            ADRC Approval: _____________________


Academic Senate Approval: _____________________







1.        Needs Assessment:

One-page form to be developed and given to students on the first introductory class


2.       Lectures – lecture notes, 2 hours each


3.       Group discussions

-          Topic / issues / problems

-          Group plan

-          Date and venue

-          Presentation & Report


4.        Laboratory work – a lab manual with clear learning objectives to be prepared and provided to the students.

-          Methodology

-          List of equipment, materials and chemicals

-          Reports to be submitted by students (format with deadline)


5.        Field visit / study tours

One-page description with the followings:

-          Background

-          Objectives

-          Date and transportation details with do’s and don’ts

-          Report with deadline

-          Presentation (date and format)


6.        Evaluation and Feedback  -

An evaluation form to be developed to give to the students to get feedback. Form evaluation following the format set by IPB.

Course objective:

Globalization and increasing demand for declining fisheries resources have caused an extension of seafood distribution chains. Today, seafood is being consumed further away from where it is harvested. This globalization of the seafood market has serious food safety implications. This course provides advance knowledge of seafood safety requirements and practical skills to ensure the safety and quality of seafood products.


Learning outcomes:

On completing this course, students will be able to:

·       Understand the seafood safety regulations within national and international context

·       Apply a range of non-sensory and sensory methods of safety assessment to a wide variety of seafood products

·       Implement management systems to ensure safe and high-quality seafoods